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With simple shapes, as in Figs. The waxed shape is now divided perpendicularly exactly in half, by a pencil line. A, Fig. It is then laid on its side and bedded in clay up to the pencil lines, the clay being sloped slightly down from the marks. F, Fig.

Wipe the shape over with waste dipped in olive oil but leave no surplus oil on the surface. B, Fig. When the plaster is set but still warm, the shape is removed and the side of the plaster that rested on the clay trimmed flat and several joggles or natches are made. C, Fig. The shape is now replaced exactly as cast and the new surfaces treated with parting and the whole slightly filmed with oil as before.

Great care must be used, for any oil on the actual surface of the mould spoils the suction of the 42 plaster at that spot. Box in and then cast just as before. This gives two halves with waste top and bottom. The shape is now placed on the lathe and the bottom waste turned off, the base of the shape being slightly hollowed. The creator having arrived so far successfully may now unbend and scratch his mark on this new surface before well waxing it.

Dowels are cut in the waste of the two halves as shown, the fresh parts soaped, all fitted together and slightly oiled, then boxed in as in D and E, Fig. When set, the shape is removed and the three parts trimmed on all the outside edges. The three pieces are assembled, firmly tied up to prevent warping, and thoroughly dried. If preferred, the mould can be made cylindrical instead of square. This will give a more even suction to the slip and may be worth the extra trouble. For casting purposes a refractory clay containing a good percentage of China clay, maturing at about but remaining perfectly white and porous, will be required.

Slip for casting is made thus: Clay, picked or broken into small pieces, is thrown into a bucket of warm water well slubbed up by hand and passed through a fine sieve No. This should be matured for some days, frequently stirred, and again sieved before using. For very small or fragile shapes, a finer sieve is advisable. The mould, quite dry and clean, is now slightly moistened with a scrupulously clean sponge and water, the parts assembled, corded, and firmly wedged, leaving the top free as in Fig.

The slip, thoroughly stirred, is poured in very gently to avoid bubbles. With awkward moulds, a tube or funnel should be used to prevent splashing. If the mould be placed on a whirler and turned to and fro, it will prevent the heavier matter in the slip settling too quickly. As the slip sinks in the mould, the subsidence being due to the absorption of the water by the plaster, the mould should be continually filled up. After a few minutes the mouth is scraped free to test the deposit.

When this is thick enough, varying, of course, with the size of the shape, the slip is poured out into another bucket. An unorthodox but often useful trick for strengthening long necks is to slide a piece of glass over the mouth and reverse the mould for a minute or so. The neck full of slip thus allows a slight extra deposit on the part that most needs it when we come to finishing off the lip. Let the mould drain a little over the slip bucket and then reverse to dry 45 slowly.

When the wet look has disappeared from the surface of the slip, scrape the top free and run a knife around to prevent sticking as the shape contracts. In a few hours it will be dry enough to permit of the sides being eased off and the shape left to dry on the base. When tough enough to handle with safety, the waste and cast lines are trimmed and finished off, any air bubbles or holes broken down and filled with clay scraped from the waste or base.

If this finishing is left until the shape be dry, it is impossible to hide such defects. The greatest care must be exercised in handling cast shapes, as they are exceptionally fragile. When quite dry, the whole form should be carefully gone over with a very fine sandpaper. A superfine surface should be imparted by rubbing with the hands. When using transparent glazes, as with under-glaze painting, it is essential that all scratches 46 be removed, and especially must all sharp edges be eliminated on neck or shoulder, for the glaze running away from these places imparts a hideously cheap look to what otherwise may be a fine shape.

All these points having received attention, the date is scratched on the bottom of the shape and it is now ready to biscuit. Generally speaking, it will be found that slip the consistency of cream is right for casting, possibly thicker for big open shapes, and after the right proportion is settled it is as well to test what it weighs to the pint. As will be readily seen, this process, whilst open to many objections, lends itself to shapes that are refined and delicate and to those that have flutings or raised ornament. Such decorations, or the spouts of jugs, may be modelled in wax on the plaster shape before casting and appear in reverse on the mould.

Designs may be scratched on the mould or shape and show as a delicate tracery beneath the glaze. All these things, however, add to the difficulty of casting and should be approached by degrees and with restraint. For in unskilled hands the process lends itself to soulless and mechanical repetition. Moulds having moderately wide mouths enable the potter to press his shapes instead of cast them.

Pressing is also resorted to for those shapes to which it would be difficult for the slip to obtain free access. For the ordinary three-piece mould the procedure would be thus: The clay, well wedged and quite plastic, is rolled out as described in Jigger and Jolley work, to a suitable thickness. Butter cloth or fine linen will do instead of leather to roll the clay on. The insides of the three parts of the mould are sponged and pieces of the thin rolled clay roughly cut to fit them. These pieces are now fitted and well applied to the three parts by dabbing with the damp sponge.

A soft close-textured sponge, or a soft felt dabber, is best for this operation. When 48 closely setting, the edges are trimmed and given a slight bevel. The top is cut straight. Then the mould is assembled and firmly tied. Some of the waste clay is rolled into thin ropes.

With the bevelled edges slightly moistened, these ropes are firmly wedged into the two side junctions and round the base. Where the mouth is large enough for the insertion of the hand this is not a difficult operation. If it be narrow, the two halves of the mould may be tied up and the joints welded together before they are assembled on the base. A coil of clay can then be placed on the edge of the base just clear of the two sides which are now fitted over and tied up. Then a stick sponge is used to join up the base to the sides.

After a little while the shape is fit to be removed and is finished in the usual way. Nothing can rival large thrown shapes for vigour or variety, but unfortunately they are not always within reach of even the good craftsman. Then this method offers the least objectionable substitute for them and in clever hands is capable of many fine results. The following method is used to mould handles or simple applied ornament.

Handles, feet, masks, etc. To mould them some skill is necessary if the press is to be quite accurate and free from twist or ugly seams. One way, when the handle or foot is symmetrical, is to cut the model exactly in half. This must be done when the model is tough enough to handle without bending or distorting it.

One half is laid cut side down upon a sheet of glass, and surrounded at a convenient distance with clay walls. Plaster 50 is now poured on to form one half of the mould, and allowed to set. It is then removed and the smooth surface joggled and claywashed brushed over with claywater. The other half is then very carefully applied to the half still embedded in the mould, the walls built round and the other part of the mould cast. Then all is trimmed up and a groove run round the form as shown. For pressing, the form is well filled with clay and the two halves of the mould strongly pressed together.

With care and practice this method is possible: Build walls and pour in enough plaster to form one half of the mould. Before it stiffens, very carefully press in the handle or ornament just up to the halfway line and allow to set. Joggle, claywash, and cast the second half. Finally, when the object is of any size, clay walls may be used as described in the chapter on Figurines. Dishes, platters, and to some extent bowls, are usually made on a Jigger and Jolley. The jigger has a revolving head, fitted to receive moulds. The jolley has a pivoted arm to which different profiles may be clamped.

In factories these things are complicated and go by power, but in a studio where the output of platters and dishes is likely to be limited something simple will do.

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Where the wheel is strong, well-hung, and fitted with a removable head, a contrivance as shown at Fig. The vertical supports of the jolley arm should be quite rigid. The arm itself must so pivot that the face of any profile screwed onto it will cross the head of the jigger, or wheel if one be used, through the centre. In other words, the cutting profile must form a diagonal of the circular head. Then, too, it must be hung at a height sufficient to allow a fairly thick block of plaster being used for a mould.

When making these moulds, the slotted wheel 52 head or the jigger head is removed and soaped or oiled. Then a circular block of plaster is cast to fit.

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This may be done with the aid of a roll of linoleum, much in the way described in casting. The paper cone will, of course, be replaced by the wheel head, bedded face up in clay. This plaster block has to be moulded to the exact size of the dish or plaque required. To do this a profile of zinc is necessary. The true section of the dish is drawn full size, and profiles giving one half of the back and front are traced on a stout sheet of zinc. The zinc is roughly cut to shape with shears and then finished with a file to a chisel edge see cut.

The two profiles are then firmly backed with shaped wooden forms, slotted to screw onto the arm of the jolley. The 53 profile giving the face of the plaque is securely adjusted in a horizontal position, the inner point, giving the centre of the platter, being exactly over the centre of the jigger head. The plaster block, which should be turned down before it sets hard, is shipped back into position, the jigger revolved and the profile gradually pressed down until the true section is obtained, i. The mould is now removed, trimmed at the sides if necessary, and set apart to dry.

It is then ready to use. The mould is slipped into position and revolved to insure even rotation. Then the profile giving the back of the platter screwed onto the arm and both adjusted until the stop allows the profile to rest at just that distance from the mould required by the thickness of the platter. The arm is then swung clear of the mould, which is well sponged with water to receive the clay. This is carefully wedged and then rolled out or batted flat on a piece of leather until it is a little thicker than the thickest part of the platter see Fig. The slab so made is smoothed with a palette knife, taken up, leather and all, slapped onto the mould, clay side down, and the leather removed.

The clay is now well dabbed down with a wet sponge or dabber, to take out all wrinkles, pressed firmly onto the mould and the waste cut off. Now the jigger or head is set spinning, the jolley pulled over it, and the profile gently pressed into the clay. Water is used freely to prevent the profile sticking, and as it becomes clogged the clay is removed. The turning is continued until the profile comes to a stop on the rest. Holes that may appear should be filled up before the finish, at which time the surface should present a smooth unscratched appearance. The shape is allowed to dry on the mould until tough enough to be slipped face down onto a perfectly flat slab dusted with fine sand or flint to prevent 55 sticking.

In this position it is left to dry, when the edges are nicely trimmed with fine sandpaper. For bowls the process is similar, but the mould here gives the outside and the profile the inside as in cut. If made on the outside, they split before they can be removed. With small bowls the clay is wedged and a lump pressed into the mould by hand. With large bowls requiring a deep foot this must be turned separately and stuck on after the bowl is removed from the mould.

Where a jigger and jolley is not available, plates and bowls may be duplicated as follows: Place the plate bottom up on a well-soaped surface or a piece of glass. Should the plate not lie quite flat, caulk the apertures with clay, then all round and distant one and one half inches from the rim, build clay walls, or fix a containing band of linoleum, of sufficient height to allow plaster being poured in an inch and a half above the base or foot of the model. Mix fairly stiff plaster and pour in. Let it set, and then remove walls and the model.

This gives a mould of the reverse of the plate or bowl. The mould is 56 thoroughly dried before using and then sponged with clean water. Clay of the desired thickness is then rolled out as described and applied to the mould and dabbed flat with a sponge or dabber. The finish is imparted with the fingers and the surplus at edges trimmed with a knife. When tough, the press is slipped out and reversed to dry on a piece of sanded glass. Where there is a rim to the plate or bowl, this should be filled in cleanly with clay before the whole is pressed.

It is of course impossible to mould thus bowls that possess a deep or under-cut foot. Throwing, sometimes spinning , is the term applied to the making of shapes on the wheel. Interesting and really fine pots may be built or cast, but the ultimate appeal rests with the thrown shape. Unfortunately, a complete mastery of throwing is not to be gained by a few spasmodic wrestles with the wheel. It comes only with long hours of concentrated effort. Having watched an accomplished 60 thrower and seen the full round shapes rise so easily between his dexterous fingers, it is with a severe shock that one realizes at the first attempt the skill and practice that will be required before such a desirable proficiency is attained.

The best kind of wheel is the kick wheel shown in the illustration. With this the feet, hands, and head work in harmony, accelerating or retarding the motions as required. It is a not distant relation of the earliest wheel, which was a heavy head on a short shaft, pivoted in a stone socket.

Set spinning by hand, it was kept revolving some time by its own momentum. This form of wheel is used even to this day in the near and far East. Its first development was a secondary wheel and driving band turned by hand. This led to the wheel shown in the frontispiece and to the kick wheel and again on to the factory wheel. This in its turn is being superseded by the steam wheel, which gears onto a running band, the foot being used to start, stop, and regulate the speed.

The two last named were introduced with the idea of accelerating the production rather than the improvement of the shapes. No doubt the now primitive kick wheel, much as used by the potters of the Renaissance, will be found good enough for us. The tools required for throwing, after the wheel itself is secured, are as follows: a thin copper wire 61 twisted between two bits of wood, a pricker, a fine soft sponge, another bit of sponge tied to a stick, one or two modelling tools and a rib see Fig.

The clay is first knocked up into shape ready for the throwing. To do this it is wedged , a fair-sized piece being taken in both hands and thrown violently down on the bench, cut across, and smashed together again. This process is repeated until all air bubbles are expelled. This is ascertained by cutting with a wire.

Metal Spinning: Metal Spinning For Craftsman, Instructors And Students

The finger is then passed across the surface to tell if it is well together, and 62 not hard and soft in streaks. If, as must happen in a small pottery, the clay is out of condition, it is best remedied by cutting it with the wire into thin slabs, piling them criss-cross and then wedging the mass. If still streaky, it can be quickly tempered, piece by piece. A double handful is torn across, wedged together at a different angle between the hands, re-torn, and re-wedged, until hard and soft are welded indistinguishably together. This thorough wedging is essential, as with beginners a small lump or bubble will usually be sufficient to bring about the collapse of the shape.

The clay being thoroughly wedged is rolled into balls of a convenient size. For first practice they should be on the small side and moderately tough, as this allows a little more play before the ball becomes too soft. The wheel is now started revolving from right to left see cut. The head being clean, the ball is thrown smartly onto its centre. The hands are now wetted in a bowl of water, which is put, together with the tools, on the shelf to the right. Then gently but firmly, with hands placed as shown in Fig. At this stage, perhaps the most critical of all, the wheel should revolve quite briskly.

The hands should be moistened if inclined to stick and the left hand held steady, the elbow pressed into the side, the forearm hard on the rest. The right hand has more 63 freedom and coaxes the ball into a half sphere. This when dead centred is elongated, pressed down again, and re-formed into a truncated cone. The left hand still steadying, the thumb of the right is pressed firmly into the centre of the top, down and out, to hollow the ball see page 18 , but stopping short of the lathe head. At this stage the most convenient shape to form is a cylinder, its walls gradually diminishing upwards with a little fatness at the rim.

To do this the wheel is slowed down a little and the fingers of the left hand inserted. The sides are felt and gently pulled up, between the left index finger and the two first fingers of the right hand, gradually higher and thinner, always endeavouring 64 to keep the walls at an even but slightly tapering thickness.

At first two fingers only will be inserted, but as the shapes grow in size the whole of the left hand will gain admittance. Then the perfect cylinder may be modified to almost any required form. With narrow-mouthed shapes the opening must be kept as small as possible, for the clay once pulled out it is difficult if not impossible to compress it again. The centring and hollowing once mastered, the chief difficulties to avoid are getting the bottom of the walls too thin before the top is pulled up, and making the top wavy and irregular.

If the latter happens, it should be at once cut back with the 65 pricker, which is also used to test the thickness of the sides and base. When the shape has been pulled up to the required form and is sufficiently thin, the top is smoothed and fattened between the fingers.

This not only imparts a look of substance to the vase and takes away any cast look, but gives strength where it is most needed. The inside, if wet, can be cleaned out with the stick sponge and the outside lightly smoothed with the other sponge. For the insides of bowls or wide-mouthed shapes, a rib of slate or zinc see Fig. The last operation is to pass the wire, held firmly to the wheel head, beneath the pot and lift it off and place it on one of the pot boards or plaster discs.

The first primitive forms are far better left frankly for what they are. Afterwards when bigger and more finished shapes are attempted, they can be thinned and refined with the aid of the rib and a modelling tool, a considerable finish being put on 67 before they are removed from the wheel. With bowls or large shapes it will be found impossible to lift them off without destroying the shape in some degree. For these wood or plaster discs will be required. The plaster bats need soaking in water before use and the wood must be three-ply to prevent warping.

These discs are centred on and firmly stuck to a layer of clay run out on the wheel head, and when the pot is finished they are removed with it. All this sounds very simple, but the beginner will do well first to practise and master centring 68 the ball. Until this be done, the rest of the work is worthless.

After this must be practised the pulling up, the pressing down, and the forming of truncated cones, then hollowing the ball and pulling up into a cylinder. A true cylinder accomplished, it is easy to branch out into simple wide-mouthed vase forms. As the skill increases, shapes with double curves and long or narrow necks may eventually be achieved. Throwing to a set copy induces a necessary concentration at this stage, but once a mastery is attained, shapes seem to suggest themselves.

A small mirror placed so as to reflect the true form will be found of great service. Without such a guide the matching up is well-nigh impossible. When watching a clever thrower in a factory making some difficult and probably horrible vase, it is 69 intensely interesting to see the fine forms evolved in the process. To the artist the impulse to stop him is almost irresistible. It was there that the old masters showed their wisdom and restraint.

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They stopped at the right moment and none of their shapes descend to the merely clever. There is a nobility about a large vase lacking in a small one. Once the appetite be whetted for big pots the desire for size seems insatiable. The only way out, except for the born thrower, is the two- or three-piece vase. The Chinese were masters of this as of every other process and we find that they frequently made vases of quite moderate size in two or three parts, sticking the pieces together with consummate skill.

This process, however, should never be attempted until considerable proficiency has been gained in throwing to a drawing, for in any but expert hands it is doomed to failure. The shape must be carefully drawn out on paper and the sections marked off and then thrown exactly to size. Any deviation means endless trouble, with eventual disappointment. For this difficult work the student unable to devote a lifetime to throwing will find a removable wheel head a necessity.

Then a slotted one can be screwed on which will allow a plaster disc to be shipped back into exactly the same position, thus saving the difficult task of re-centring. For prolonged 70 operations these plaster discs require to be shellacked to prevent the work leaving. To start with a shape as shown in the illustration might be attempted. The drawing made full size is hung in full view. Then the gauge is set to 71 the exact width of the joint.

The bottom half is first made, being cut square and true with the pricker. The drawing is reversed and the upper half thrown, the neck being at the bottom with a fair amount of waste beneath. When each part is trimmed accurately to measure, they are put aside to toughen. The top portion will stiffen just as required, leaving the neck still moist. The bottom half will need watching to prevent the upper edge drying before the base gets firm enough to support the top when attached.

A damp cloth lightly wrapped round it will help to insure the ideal condition for sticking up, which is a gradually diminishing state of toughness from the base up to lip, the junction of the parts being in exactly the same state. When fit to handle, the top half is cut through at the lip, allowing a trifle for finishing off. Next the bottom half, still firmly fixed to the bat, is slotted back into its original position on the wheel.

The flat surfaces that have to be applied and stuck are now very carefully and slightly roughened, then painted with thick slip made from the same body. These two wet edges are now applied and gently and firmly pressed into position, the wheel being slowly revolved to see if the two halves run true. When well together and apparently sticking, a little wedge of soft clay can be carefully run in all around the joint.

This operation should be very 72 thorough, and the clay wedge must be carefully welded into the sides of the joint. This is finished off on the outside with the rib and the inside very lightly smoothed with the fingers. During this process the top should be covered with a soft wet cloth, then when the joint has been made good and will stand the slight strain, the lip is finished off in the ordinary way. With three-pieced shapes the lip can be finished before sticking up, as the last part is thrown in its right position. If at any time the shape shows a disposition to leave the plaster bat, it should be stuck down with wet clay.

The toughened shape can now be turned down in its upright position, cut off the bat, and the base hollowed in a chuck see next chapter. The turning or shaving operation takes place when the green shape has dried to a leathery condition. It consists in shaving the sides and hollowing the base until the thickness is uniform. The shape is thus made much lighter and rendered less liable to crack from unequal contraction. At the same time a fine finish is imparted to the surface. One of the handiest tools for shaving is shown in Fig. Small hollows can be finished with a modelling tool.

An old piece of leather will close up and finish the surface. In factories a horizontal lathe is usually employed, the shape being fitted over a chum or chuck. Skilled men can turn shapes down until they are scarcely thicker than tin, but this, it is needless to add, is an abuse of method even with porcelain, and quite out of place with stoneware or earthenware. All that is necessary is to trim the thick sides, hollow the base, and smooth the surface.

A simple way to arrive at this is to throw on the wheel a chuck of stiff clay to fit the shape, wide-mouthed ones being fitted over and ordinary shapes within the chuck. A piece of soft linen is placed over this chuck to prevent sticking and the shape fitted and centred. When spinning quite truly from right to left and steadied with the left hand, the tool should be gently applied as shown in the illustration.

Hollow the base and then shave the sides, turning all down very gradually and improve the outline as much as possible in the process. Care must be taken with the base. If it is not quite true it should be sandpapered to stand flat. A little experience will soon show when it is in the best state for shaving.


If the clay is too soft, the tool jumps, forming ridges, or possibly cuts deeply into the form. If it is too dry, the surface crumbles and the pot is liable to break. When turned in the right leathery condition, the shavings curl off like peel from an apple and all tool marks are 76 easily removed. A beautiful finish may then be imparted with the leather.

To end the process the shape is reversed in the chuck. Those most important parts, the shoulders and lip, are carefully rounded with a piece of felt and polished with the leather. Properly attended to, this will save much work and disappointment later on. Then with all holes filled up, all ridges, bumps, and sharp edges removed, the shape is signed and put to dry. For very delicate work in transparent glaze or under-glaze painting, the whole surface may be gone over with very fine sandpaper and polished with the hand.

This may be done provided the body is a fine one, for with a coarse body this is apt to leave the surface looking gritty. Some little practice will be necessary in throwing stiff chucks and centring the shape securely, but this once mastered, the method here described will be found to be expeditious and satisfactory for turning shapes. A proper regard for process points to the desirability of leaving built shapes without a high finish.

Yet they also, if built carefully and stoutly, may be turned down in the above manner. The building up and turning down is somewhat tedious, but it is sometimes the only way by which a craftsman can obtain large shapes. A rather more simple process is to centre the shape upon a whirler and 77 turn down with a sharp wire tool, finishing off lightly with a sponge and soft leather. To accomplish this satisfactorily the shape must be fairly soft, as there can be no quick spinning motion to enable the tool to cut cleanly as in the chuck or the wheel. When the head of the whirler 78 is of plaster, it should be well soaked in water and the centred shape stuck down with soft clay.

The hand holding the cutting wire tool must be held steady at a fixed distance from the centred shape and the pot may be sprayed with water blown through a diffuser from time to time, to keep it moist. Some clays will not, however, stand much re-wetting. It should not be necessary to caution the craftsman 79 against angular profiles, splayed feet, or sharp mouldings.

Such features are foreign to good pottery, however suited to metal or stone. With taste and judgement the irregular grooving caused by the tool can be made of high decorative value. In no case should the built shape try to masquerade as a thrown shape. When the whirler is used to shave down built shapes, they may be coiled very thick at the base, thus allowing more rapid work. The attention must then be concentrated on the profile of the inside. In this way many shapes that splay out or curve boldly from the foot may be built, which would otherwise present many difficulties in coiling.

Tiles may be made of various kinds and sizes, but in every case they show an inclination to buckle in drying and firing. The larger the tile the stronger is this tendency to warp.

The clay must not be so rich as that which is used for throwing and should be tempered to counteract the tendency to curl. A tile box as shown in Fig. The sides hinge and the thumb screws keep it steady on the bench during work. For rough tiles, two strips nailed to the table will serve, the clay being rolled out between and cut in lengths as required. The mould is dusted with French chalk, flint, or very finely 81 sifted clay dust, to prevent sticking, and into it is pressed a piece cut to fit easily in the tile box, from the slab.

This is firmly pressed into the box, considerable pressure being used. The surplus is scraped off and the top trued with an iron straight-edge. The knife can be run round the sides, then with the frame reversed a smart tap on the back will release the tile. Let the tiles toughen and then pile in stacks with flat pieces of clay or old tile between each corner and a true biscuit tile at bottom and the top. They can be piled one on the other with sand between or stacked like bricks with alternate holes for the 82 air to circulate.

This retards the drying, but in any case they must be dried slowly. With plain glazed tiles a little coarse dust sprinkled over the surface before the tile is removed from the box, and well pressed in, will give a slight interest to the surface and take away any mechanical look. If required for painting, the clay must be very finely sieved and the surface will need careful finishing by hand when dry. With coarse clay, a fine surface can be imparted with a flexible broad palette knife.

The best way, perhaps, is to oil the frame and cast the bat in it, removing it when set and sandpapering the upper surface flat and true. The design for the tile drawn the exact size on paper is now traced on this surface. It is far better to sketch it directly onto the slab, but this demands some proficiency if the surface is to be preserved. The design is then incised with a firm sharp point, clay squeezes being taken from time to time to show the progress of the work. The plaster should be wetted to insure easy working. At the finish the design should stand out in a fairly strong and deep line—square—not round or angular in section.

A chisel-pointed hard pencil will be found best for finishing. This gives a clear-cut line, not too round. The bat, 83 sponged clean and porous, is then placed in the frame and the tile pressed as before. Raised outline tiles can be even more satisfactorily made by means of outlining slip squeezed from a tube or tracer in the same manner that inscriptions are made on sugared cakes, but this requires much practice to obtain good results. When glazing, the coloured glazes are applied to the different compartments with a brush. As the glaze fuses to about one third of its bulk when dry, it should be applied very liberally.

It will be found that large or elaborate designs are to be avoided, as in this process they tend to 84 become mechanical and look thin. The old Spanish and Moorish tiles in this style with jewel-like bits of colour are excellent guides and might be studied with advantage. The process of making encaustic tiles is a little more complicated.

On this when firm the design is traced or pounced. Then with a thin sharp blade it is cut down vertically to the plaster bat, and the clay removed until the whole design shows in white plaster beneath see illustration The face of the clay left must be preserved carefully, as it forms the surface of the subsequent press. The plaster and the sides of the frame are slightly oiled 85 and the plaster mixed and poured in. A soft hair brush will be useful to dislodge the air bubbles that are certain to hide in some of the many odd corners. When nearly set, the surface of the plaster can be scraped flat, and when set taken out of the frame and detached.

The clay is picked out and the whole surface of the design cleaned and trimmed so that it will not hold or bind in pressing. This in turn is placed in the frame and a careful press taken. The result is a sunk design into which a different coloured clay is pressed, the tile being first allowed to toughen. The surface is lightly scraped flat and the tile slowly dried.

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When hard, the face is scraped again with a steel straight-edge, sandpapered, and dusted, when the design appears in two colours. The most effective clays are fairly siliceous reds, 86 buffs, browns, and greys. When tempered with flint or quartz sand to a uniform degree, they offer a splendid opportunity for counterchange pattern. If a soft clay that contracts considerably is inlaid in a refractory clay, cracks will appear round the edges of the inlay. Thus it is found best to have the body of the tile made of the clay that contracts most. Where only a single tile is required a more direct method is possible.

The tile is pressed and allowed to toughen slightly, the design being transferred as before. It is then cut round with a sharp knife 87 and the waste removed with a wire tool. A certain facility of handling is required, for great care must be taken to preserve the edges and angles. This method is, however, productive of much fresh and vigorous work. The most satisfactory way to make modelled tiles or panels is to run out upon a stout board, cross battened to prevent warping, a flat slab of clay of the required thickness.

Sketch in the design with a point and model straight away onto the clay. Care must be taken, if the panel is to be fired, to see that all the added work adheres firmly to the background. Where several presses are to be made, the edges of the modelled slab should be carefully trimmed with a bevel, the board oiled, and the mould made directly after the modelling is finished. The mould may be worked on in moderation. Lettering is much more easily incised in the mould than raised in the clay. For tiles needing much sharpness of detail almost the whole can be carved in the plaster.

Unless done with great sympathy, however, this leads to a certain harshness and angularity that should be foreign to clay. Where a 88 moulded frame for a panel is required, a strickle , or profile, is cut in zinc. For short use one made from a thin slab of plaster will serve. The strickle is keyed to a straight-edge and dragged over the clay until the correct moulding emerges.

This is then cut into lengths and very carefully dried. The tendency of all transparent glassy glazes to pool in hollows and run off at high points must be borne in mind. With thick matt glazes any delicacy of detail is apt to be lost labour. These problems should be faced before the design is made, as in this process there is a certain quality of surface required by the glaze. On the other hand, in endeavouring to make a good surface for the glaze to enhance, it is easy to slip into the over-round and slimy treatment that characterizes so much modelled pottery. Drying out is quite an important part of pot making.

For this a drying cupboard is a necessity. It is easily erected, if the front and sides of wood be backed against a wall. Across the bottom, which should be open, run a row of gas jets protected above by perforated zinc or iron. At the top, which is boarded in, place a small sliding panel to insure a draught. With side brackets and removable shelves it should answer all purposes. A cupboard may be built over a radiator, but here the heat is not so easily regulated. A thermometer inside the cupboard will be an advantage, for a wet pot straight from the wheel will warp in a warmth that would be quite suited to tough shapes.

The green or damp wares should be put on the top shelves and brought nearer the heat as they dry. Large shapes put into the cupboard to dry quickly are very liable to crack across 90 the base. Any flush of heat upon them through any aperture in the shelves will cause them to dry streakily. Turning then becomes difficult or impossible. Bowls, if not too fragile, may with care be piled one within the other. This helps to retain their shape.

Tiles are best stacked in piles dusted with flint or with a piece of clay at each corner between them. Tiles should never be placed in the cupboard until quite dry and straight. Flat platters or dishes require very careful drying to prevent buckling and should be reversed on a piece of sanded glass. When shapes are dried in the open air, they often get hard at the rim before the bottom stiffens. They need reversing to counteract this tendency. To retard drying, which may often be necessary, a damp-box is needed. A large box, zinc-lined and fitted with plaster slabs, is an excellent device.

The plaster must be kept moist with water. A well-tarred box with a close-fitting lid is more easily constructed and will serve most purposes.

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  • All work to be stuck up or modelled on should be kept in the damp-box until quite finished and then dried very gradually. In all kinds of sticking up the body and the addition should be of the same consistency. Re-wetting is dangerous but may be resorted to in moderation with stout thrown shapes. Ornament added when the shape is nearly dry is very likely to leave in the 91 biscuiting, although apparently quite firm in the green state.

    Cast shapes dry very rapidly and should be finished before they become white dry. With practice handles, masks, and the like can be affixed in the dry state with slip, but it demands its careful and sparing use. Cracks or holes in dried shapes can with great care be filled, a stiff wedge of clay being firmly pressed in and welded to the slightly moistened sides of the crack. The plaster tools Fig. With skill and patience much repairing may be done on unfired shapes, but it is a waste of time to attempt it unless the beauty of the piece warrants it. It is far better if the piece be faulty to throw it back into the bin at this stage.

    Once fired, it is likely to remain an irremediable eyesore. One or two other points bearing on finish have been mentioned before in previous chapters, but these last touches are so important that they will bear some reiteration. The finality burned in by the biscuiting 92 should induce a careful and sound completion of each object; yet paradoxical as it may seem, the less finishing, the better for the piece.

    The best Japanese work was superb in this respect and despite the many quaint and surprising shapes into which they fashioned the clay, it very rarely seems to lose its plastic character, it never assumes forms more suited to metal, wood, or stone. Again the character that comes with correct treatment is never smothered.

    Often the ribs or ridges made by the fingers or the tool in forming the shape are frankly left to contribute their quota to the general effect. The lips are rounded with scrupulous care and angles removed without a suggestion of weakness.

    It is only when such additions are affixed that one realizes the nicety of adjustment required between the size, shape, and situation of the handle or spout and the vessel to which it is attached. It is here that an appreciation and an intelligent use of historic ornament is necessary.

    When sufficient green shapes have been accumulated and are white dry, the next stage will be biscuiting. This process is the firing of the clay to a primrose or a white heat according to its fusibility. This permanently expels the water that is always present, even when dry, and converts the friable clay into a hard unalterable body. This may vary in colour from the white of kaolin to ivory, grey, buff, red, or brown, according to the composition of the clay; it may be vitreous or porous; soft like common flower pots or so hard that it will spark when struck with steel.

    The fire is the ultimate test of the pot and of the potter. It is indispensable to both. With but a small kiln the craftsman will begin to appreciate many things that can be learned only at the fire hole. Without a kiln he will not commence to be a potter. The kinds of kilns usually found in schools are the gas and the oil kiln. The English gas kiln has an arrangement of nine or twelve burners beneath the muffle. This is a fire-clay box, open at the front, set on fire bricks and cased round with fire tiles within an iron frame see cut. There is an air space all round, except at the open end, leading to the flues on top which have dampers to regulate the draught.

    The open end may be closed by a hinged door or bricked up with fire tiles cut to fit. The defects of this kind of kiln are too sudden access of flame to the bottom of the muffle, causing it to split, and the impossibility of getting the front, where trials are usually placed, fired up equally 95 with the back. An ideal muffle of this kind would be one with flues all round, gradual access of flame on all sides, spy holes each end, and the top to lift off, for placing.

    American kilns have flues in the door, and the chimney at the top is placed slightly forward, thus making it easy to fire the front up hard. They are usually fitted with two large burners, with air mixers, and a handy mica spy hole. The oil kiln differs considerably from the gas kiln. The oil is fed through tubes into fire boxes some distance below the bottom of the muffle. It burns on asbestos fibre in an iron pan to which the draught can be admitted. The flames strike the bottom of the muffle and pass up through fire-clay pipes, which project into the muffle, then pass off through a twin flue regulated by dampers.

    It is a good plan when a coarse fire-clay muffle is used for glaze and biscuit to give the sides and top a sagger wash of lead and stone. This renders the muffle less liable to absorb glaze from the pots in glost firing. It also lessens the danger of small bits scaling off and sticking to the finished ware. The bottom should always be kept dusted with finely powdered flint. When cracks appear or 96 joints open, they should be stopped with a pugging of fire clay and grog.

    A mixture of egg silica or water glass with fine grog and quartz sand will stop small cracks. Siluma , a fire-proof cement, with equal parts of sand, answers admirably for patching. Triangular pieces of biscuit, called saddles, are used to raise the shapes off the bottom, but often a fired tile, sanded and placed on a spur or saddles, gives the best foundation.

    Where two layers are required, small props and fire bats, perforated to let the heat through, will be necessary. These form shelves as the exigencies of the packing dictate. For light shapes, thimbles and fired tiles will serve the purpose.

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    Where a shelf or prop rocks insecurely, a small wad of pugging grog and clay will give a steady bearing. Thrown bowls, if dried together and well fitting, may be fired together, and large thrown pots may be filled with little ones. Cast shapes can be placed on top of thrown ones, but no liberty is to be taken with them. Flint should be used liberally to prevent sticking, which may happen if the biscuit be over-fired.

    Tiles can be fired two together in tile boxes or 97 stacked as dried. Flat ware fired in a small muffle requires very careful handling. Whenever possible, it should be placed in the centre, on a flat flint-covered fire tile or bat. One soon learns to pack a biscuit kiln, using saddles, spurs, stilts, thimbles, bits of tile or biscuit, and sand or flint as necessary.

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    The thing that is a little difficult to realize at first is that built or thrown shapes, and still less tiles or modelled work, should not be hurried. Although to all appearances thoroughly dry, the least hurry generates steam which will ruthlessly blow our best effects to bits. In packing, two cones or temperature indicators Fig. These cones are made of different compositions which melt at varying temperatures.

    Thus if the firing point of a body is known, a cone of that degree is used and the firing continued until the cone bends. This it does soon after it assumes the colour of the surrounding muffle. To eliminate the uncertainty that is likely to be present at the first few firings it is as well to use two or even three cones, one just above and one below the correct temperature. Placed in order there is little chance then of over- or under-firing unless so 98 much sulphur gets into the kiln that the cones harden and refuse to turn. Calorites are sometimes used but are not so reliable.

    The cones may be sloped to insure bending to right or left, as a cone bending towards the spy is deceptive. A trial piece of biscuit being placed near the spy hole, the next thing is to close the muffle. In a kiln with hinged doors the spy hole is fixed and this fact has to be taken into account. But with a bricked-up door the spy and vent may be left where it is most convenient. These orifices have plugs that fit them loosely so that if necessary they can be pulled without disturbing the clamming.

    This clamming or stopping is a mixture of sand, sieved dust, ground pitchers, or other infusible siftings held 99 together with a very little waste glaze and water. Where much is required, moist sand will suffice. This is plastered into the cracks that would otherwise let heat out of, or air into, the muffle, and so seals up the door. With hinged doors little stopping is required, except round the spy or vent. The crack above the door should not be clammed until the muffle begins to get warm. With this done and the two plugs out, all is now ready to light up.

    With an English kiln, a good middle course is as follows: For cone. See that all the burner taps are off with the main cock on one third to one half. Take the reading of the metre. Pull the air regulators right back and the dampers out nearly half. Then take out the plug of the lighting hole and insert a taper. Turn on tap number 1. When lit, withdraw the taper and turn on tap number 2.

    Turn down to about one half and continue until every burner is lit, making sure that each one is burning freely with a yellow flame. With a kiln having twelve burners turn out all but numbers 3, 6, and 9. With these on one third, very gently push forward the air regulators until a roaring noise tells that air is being admitted to the bunsen burners. The flame at this time should be blue, and the stopper should be replaced. If the flame appears at all fierce, turn the taps down a little.

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