Guide Waves and Particles in Light and Matter

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Origin of Quantum Mechanics. Development of Atomic theory. Quantum Model of the Atom. Sommerfeld's Atom. Quantum Spin.

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Superconductors and Superfluids. Nuclear Physics. De Broglie's Matter Waves. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Quantum Entanglement. Quantum Mechanics and Parallel Worlds. The Field Concept in Physics.

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The Electromagnetic Force. The Strong Nuclear Force. The Weak Nuclear Force. Quantum Gravity.

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Mind-Body Dualism. Empiricism and Epistemology.

Wave Particle Duality and How It Works

Material theories of the Mind. The Mind and Quantum Mechanics. The Limitations of Science. List of symbols.

Wave-particle duality

Image Copyright. Arthur Compton proved that photons do have the momentum Einstein predicted in When the X-rays hit the electrons in the outermost shell of the aluminium atoms, they transferred some of their angular momentum. The electrons gained enough energy to leave the atom, and the X-ray photon lost the same amount of energy.

They would then fire these electrons into a slab of gold to create a beam of photons a billion times more energetic than visible light. Scientists would fire a high-energy laser at the inner surface of this gold can, to create a thermal radiation field, generating light similar to the light emitted by stars. It would then be possible to detect the formation of the electrons and positrons when they exited the can. We were able to develop the idea for the collider very quickly, but the experimental design we propose can be carried out with relative ease and with existing technology.

Within a few hours of looking for applications of hohlraums outside their traditional role in fusion energy research, we were astonished to find they provided the perfect conditions for creating a photon collider. The race to carry out and complete the experiment is on!

Waves Vs. Particles

Reference: Pike, O, J. Nature Photonics, 18 May Gail Wilson Communications and Public Affairs.

Wave-particle duality has been demonstrated for photons light , elementary particles, atoms, and molecules. However, the wave properties of larger particles, such as molecules, have extremely short wavelengths and are difficult to detect and measure. Classical mechanics is generally sufficient for describing the behavior of macroscopic entities.

Wave–particle duality

Numerous experiments have validated wave-particle duality, but there are a few specific early experiments that ended the debate about whether light consists of either waves or particles:. The photoelectric effect is the phenomenon where metals emit electrons when exposed to light. The behavior of the photoelectrons could not be explained by classical electromagnetic theory. Heinrich Hertz noted that shining ultraviolet light on electrodes enhanced their ability to make electric sparks Einstein explained the photoelectric effect as resulting from light carried in discrete quantized packets.

Robert Millikan's experiment confirmed Einstein's description and led to Einstein winning the Nobel Prize in for "his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" and Millikan winning the Nobel Prize in for "his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect". The Davisson-Germer experiment confirmed the deBroglie hypothesis and served as a foundation for the formulation of quantum mechanics.